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Efficacité ou efficience ? Quelles différences ?

Tout entrepreneur cherche à améliorer son efficacité afin de mieux gérer son temps. En effet, surtout à ses débuts, l’entrepreneur se retrouve au four et au moulin. Un peu de compta, un peu de prospection commerciale, un peu de gestion des réseaux sociaux et j’en passe. Attention cependant à ne pas confondre « être efficace » avec « être efficient ».

Pour autant, cet article est un peu particulier par rapport aux précédents dans la mesure où j’aborde un sujet qui va au delà de l’entrepreneuriat. Que vous soyez entrepreneur ou salarié, célibataire ou en couple, avec ou sans enfants, vous êtes tous probablement concernés par la gestion du temps. D’ailleurs, c’est un sujet qui me tient à cœur et auquel je m’intéresse tout particulièrement depuis quelque temps. D’autres articles à venir traiteront de ce sujet.

Pour ce premier article relatif à la gestion du temps, je vais vous présenter deux principes fondamentaux que je vous conseille vivement de mettre en place au quotidien pour devenir plus efficace. Le but étant de mettre en place des actions efficaces pour travailler moins (mais mieux) afin d’avoir plus de temps libre.

1. Améliorer son efficacité, qu’est-ce que ça veut dire ?

J’utilise le mot « efficacité » et non pas « efficience ». C’est assumé puisqu’il y a une vraie différence entre l’efficacité et l’efficience.

Être efficace, c’est accomplir une tâche qui nous rapprochent de nos objectifs de la manière la plus économique possible. Être efficient, c’est accomplir une tâche donnée (importante ou non) de la manière la plus économique possible. Vous l’avez compris, la différence fondamentale entre l’efficacité et l’efficience dépend de l’importance de l’action que vous effectuez.

Un exemple concret : l’as du porte à porte est efficient mais inefficace. En effet, il vendrait probablement plus avec le courriel ou le publipostage. Bien faire une chose ne la rend pas plus importante pour autant. De même, ce n’est pas parce qu’une tâche exige beaucoup de temps qu’elle est importante. L’efficience est donc utile si et seulement si on l’applique aux bonnes choses !

L’enjeu est donc de passer un minimum de temps sur les tâches les plus importantes.

2. 2 principes fondamentaux pour améliorer son efficacité

Je vais vous présenter deux lois très puissantes pour améliorer son efficacité au travail. Chacune de ces lois mériterait un article à part entière. Et c’est ce que je vais faire dans les prochains jours.

A – Le principe de Pareto

Le principe de Pareto vous permet d’identifier les tâches importantes. Cette loi est également connue sous le nom de la règle des 20/80. Que dit cette loi ?

Que 20% des causes engendrent 80% des effets.

Voici quelques traductions possibles :

  • 20% des clients engendrent 80% des problèmes
  • 80% du chiffre d’affaires est généré par 20% des clients
  • 20% des fournisseurs engendrent 80% des problèmes
  • 80% du chiffre d’affaires est généré grâce à 20% des produits

Concrètement, voici un exemple purement fictif pour illustrer ce principe :

Vous faites de la prospection commerciale 10 heures par semaine dont voici la répartition :

  • 4 heures d’appels téléphoniques : vous obtenez 1 RDV.
  • 2 heures d’envoi de mails : vous obtenez 8 RDV.
  • 4 heures de démarchage physique : vous obtenez 1 RDV.

Dans cet exemple, 20% de vos actions (les deux heures de démarchage par mail chaque semaine) vous apportent 80 % de vos résultats (à savoir 80% des rendez-vous). Bien que cet exemple puisse paraître simpliste, amusez-vous à faire le calcul des différentes actions dans votre activité et vous verrez que ce principe se vérifie toujours.

Le principe de Pareto permet d’identifier les tâches importantes afin de se focaliser dessus et les optimiser. Combiné à un autre principe, le principe de Pareto est ultra efficace pour améliorer son efficacité. À savoir, la loi de Parkinson.

améliorer son efficacité-Principe de Pareto

B – La loi de Parkinson

Que dit la loi de Parkinson ? Qu’une tâche grossit en importance et en complexité (perçue) à la mesure du temps alloué à sa réalisation. En d’autres termes, moins on a de temps pour réaliser une tâche, plus on se concentre sur sa réalisation. En effet, comme nous disposons de moins de temps, nous nous concentrons sur l’essentiel.

Exemple concret qui m’est déjà arrivé et je pense que je ne suis pas le seul concerné 😉 En effet, ne vous est-il jamais arrivé de vous mettre à travailler sur un projet au dernier moment en pensant ne pas avoir assez de temps pour le réaliser ? Et pourtant vous l’avez fait !

Pour ma part, j’avais un mémoire de 60 pages à rendre lors de la deuxième année de mon DUT. J’avais effectué mon stage en janvier et février et j’avais donc 3 mois pour le rédiger (mars – avril – mai). Et je m’y suis mis une semaine avant la date de remise du mémoire. C’est un cas un peu extrême mais retenez simplement que pour gagner en efficacité, il faut vous imposer des délais courts.

3. La combinaison gagnante pour améliorer son efficacité

Afin d’être efficace dans ma conclusion, retenez simplement ceci:

  • Le principe de Pareto consiste à limiter les tâches à l’important pour diminuer le temps de travail.
  • La loi de Parkinson consiste à diminuer le temps de travail pour limiter les tâches à l’important.

Ces deux principes, combinés, sont très puissants pour améliorer son efficacité au travail.

Identifiez un petit nombre de tâches essentielles qui contribuent le plus à vos résultats et programmez les avec des dates butoirs très courtes et précises !

Connaissiez-vous ces deux principes ? Les appliquez-vous au quotidien ?

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Cet article a 1 318 commentaires

  1. Salut Arthur !

    Article très enrichissant, merci.
    Ce que tu explique a du sens, je suis d’ailleurs en train de lire le livre Le Principe 80/20. Dans la méthode que tu proposes, il y a donc besoin d’avoir des mesures précises de chaque action et de ses éventuelles répercutions.
    Comment mettre en place un système de mesure efficace quand on est justement, un entrepreneur avec la tête dans le guidon ?
    Prendre du recul peut ne pas être aussi facile que ça.
    Un conseil peut être ?

    1. Merci Guillaume !
      Personnellement, je me fixe des objectifs annuels, mensuels et hebdomadaires.
      À chaque fois que je dois faire une action, je me demande si elle me rapproche de mes objectifs.
      Si ce n’est pas le cas, je ne la fais pas. Ça me permet de prendre un peu de hauteur en éliminant toutes les tâches inutiles afin d’augmenter mon efficacité 🙂

  2. Merci pour cet article !
    J’irai définitivement lire les articles complétant celui-ci, surtout celui de la loi de Parkinson, car j’ai l’impression qu’elle ne m’a jamais était expliqué correctement jusqu’à maintenant. 😉
    Sinon, au-delà de efficience, j’ai l’impression que trop de gens confondent l’efficacité et la productivité…Est-ce que tu vois ce que je veux dire ?

    1. Merci pour ton commentaire Victor 🙂
      Je suis totalement d’accord avec toi. Efficacité et productivité sont différents.
      Dans mon article, quand je parle d’efficience, j’entends productivité.
      Pour moi, l’efficacité, c’est accomplir une tâche importante de la manière la plus économique possible.
      La productivité, c’est accomplir une tâche (importante ou non) de la manière la plus économique possible.
      Est-ce que c’est comme ça que tu vois les choses également ? Sinon, j’aimerais que tu m’en dises plus sur la distinction que tu fais entre ces deux termes 🙂

      1. Salut Arthur,
        Je vois pour ma part la productivité dans un sens plus large : c’est le fait d’être productif. De chercher à rempli (plus ou moins consciemment) sa journée d’une succession de tâche. La où je te rejoins c’est sur la dimension importante ou non de la tache lorsque l’on parle de productivité.
        Répondre à tous ses emails et donc en envoyer 1000 en une matinée fait de nous quelqu’un de productif, seulement cela ne fais pas de nous quelqu’un d’efficace…
        Et c’est de là que je voulais dire que des fois on se leurre l’esprit en pensant bien faire, en remplissant sa journée de taches qui n’ont pas de grande utilité par rapport à nos objectifs, notre bien-être, ou tout autre chose qui nous est vraiment importante.

        1. Complètement d’accord avec toi Victor 🙂

  3. Salut Arthur,

    Tu as lu le libre: les 7 habitudes de ceux qui réussissent Tout ce qu’ils entreprennent n’est-ce pas?

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