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Les langages informatiques quand on part de 0

Pas besoin d’être développeur pour communiquer avec un développeur. Mais connaitre les bases vous aidera à le comprendre. Et aussi à vous faire comprendre. C’est pour le bien de votre entreprise !

L’objectif de cet article est d’apprendre le langage du développeur pour comprendre les différentes facettes de son travail. Vous devez donc être en mesure de connaitre son métier, ses langages et ses outils.

1. Connaitre les différents types de développeurs

Afin de placer les éléments dans leur contexte, faisons un rappel des différents types de développeurs web que l’on peut trouver. Il y a le développeur front-end et le développeur back-end.

Le développeur front-end s’occupe de l’interface utilisateur du site web. Tout ce que vous voyez sur un site web a donc été développé par un développeur front-end.

Le développeur back-end s’occupe de la « data » (donnée en français). Tout ce que vous ne voyez pas en tant qu’utilisateur sur le site web. Mais qui est essentiel pour son bon fonctionnement. Il s’agit donc principalement des bases de données et de la gestion des serveurs.

Illustrons de manière très simple la différence entre ces deux types de développeurs.

Vous vous rendez sur ma page « Contact ». Le formulaire tel que vous le voyez (les champs, les cases, la typographie, les couleurs…) est ce qu’on appelle le front-end. Par contre, une fois que vous avez appuyé sur le bouton « Envoyer », il faut paramétrer l’envoi de votre message vers mon adresse mail et stocker les données que vous m’avez envoyées (votre nom, votre mail, l’objet du mail et votre message). C’est ce qu’on appelle le back-end.

Je n’irai pas plus dans les détails car je viens de répéter ce que j’avais déjà dit dans l’article dans lequel je vous ai présenté les différents types de développeurs. J’en profite pour vous rappeler qu’un développeur full-stack est un développeur qui maîtrise le front-end et le back-end. Notez également qu’un développeur front-end a toujours des notions de back-end et vice versa 🙂

2. Connaitre les langages informatiques pour mieux communiquer avec un développeur

Pour bien communiquer avec un développeur, vous devez connaitre les langages informatiques qu’il utilise.

A- Les langages du développeur front-end

Il utilise HTML, CSS et Javacript.

Le langage HTML est utilisé pour structurer et donner sens au contenu web. Par exemple, définir un paragraphe, insérer une photo, définir un titre…

Le langage CSS met en forme le langage HTML. Par exemple, choisir la couleur d’arrière-plan, modifier la police, insérer un cadre…

JavaScript est un langage de programmation qui permet des effets interactifs sur les sites web. Par exemple, créer du contenu mis à jour de façon dynamique, contrôler le contenu multimédia, animer des images…

Sur du front-end, le développeur va utiliser ces trois langages simultanément. Ils sont complémentaires.

B – Les langages du développeur back-end

Pour le back-end, la développeur va utiliser un seul langage. Il en existe plusieurs. C’est comme une langue. Elles sont différentes mais permettent tous le même résultat.

Que vous disiez « Quel est ton nom? « , « What’s your name ? » ou « Como te llamas ? », ce sont trois phrases exprimées en trois langues langues différentes (français, anglais et espagnol) qui signifient exactement la même chose.

Il existe donc plusieurs langages qui ont tous leurs particularités et qui peuvent être découpés de la façon suivante :

  • Les langages historiques : PHP, Java
  • Les langages modernes : Python, Ruby

Ce sont des langages de programmation. Ils donnent tous des instructions. Attention, cette liste n’est pas exhaustive.

3. Connaitre les outils du développeur informatique

A – Les outils pour coder

Le développeur dispose de plusieurs outils pour développer un site ou un logiciel. À savoir le système d’exploitation de son ordinateur, l’éditeur de code et le navigateur web.

Le système d’exploitation assure le démarrage de l’ordinateur et l’exécution des logiciels applicatifs. Sans système d’exploitation, il est impossible d’utiliser son ordinateur. Il y a Windows (le plus utilisé), Mac OS (proposé par Apple) et Linux (qui est en libre accès).

L’éditeur de code est un logiciel sur lequel le développeur écrit le code du site ou du logiciel qu’il est en train de créer. Exemple d’éditeur : Phpstorm, Visual Studio Code, Sublim Text (c’est celui sur lequel j’ai appris à coder en HTML et c’est le seul que je connais !).

Le navigateur web. Normalement, on connait tous ça 😉 Il s’agit de Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Opera…

B – Les outils pour coder plus vite

Pour coder un site ou un logiciel plus rapidement, le développeur peut utiliser des bibliothèques ou des framework.

Une bibliothèque est une collection prête à être utilisée pour faciliter la manipulation des éléments HTML. Par exemple, jQuery est une bibliothèque JavaScript libre et multiplateforme créée pour faciliter l’écriture de scripts côté client dans le code HTML des pages web.

Un framework désigne un ensemble cohérent de composants logiciels structurels, qui sert à créer les fondations ainsi que les grandes lignes de tout ou d’une partie d’un logiciel.

En fait, une bibliothèque ou un framework permet au développeur de gagner du temps et de pas coder de A à Z. Voici un tableau simplifié de framework en fonction du langage du développeur :

communiquer avec un développeur
Framework et langage informatique

Encore une fois, ce n’est pas exhaustif 😉

À retenir

Pour communiquer avec un développeur, retenez qu’il y a différents types de développeurs qui utilisent différents langages et différents outils 😉

L’objectif de cet article n’est pas de faire de vous des experts informatiques. Mais de vous permettre de comprendre ce que vous dit le développeur. Vous êtes donc maintenant en mesure d’utiliser les bons termes quand vous vous adressez à lui.

Ces éléments peuvent paraître abstraits mais à force de côtoyer des développeurs, vous serez alors en mesure de les assimiler rapidement. Il reste encore des notions à apprendre puisque j’ai très peu évoqué les bases de données. Et je n’ai pas parlé d’API… Patience, nous y viendrons en temps voulu. Nous ne sommes pas développeurs après tout 😉

Connaissiez-vous ces notions ? Si tout n’est pas clair, je vous invite donc à poser vos questions dans les commentaires 🙂

À bientôt 🙂

PS : Pour ceux qui souhaitent s’initier au développement informatique, voici une formation en ligne gratuite pour apprendre à coder en HTML et CSS. C’est une formation que j’ai suivie et qui m’a permis de mieux comprendre le travail des développeurs. Je vous invite à la suivre si vous souhaitez mieux communiquer avec un développeur 🙂

Reçois gratuitement le guide "Les 7 clés pour devenir un entrepreneur libre"

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